The LOD2 kick off meeting was held in Leipzig on Sept 6-8. I will here talk about OpenLink plans as concerns LOD2; hence this is not to be taken as representative of the whole project. I will first discuss the immediate and conclude with the long term.
As concerns OpenLink specifically, we have two short term activities, namely publishing the initial LOD2 repository in December and publishing a set of RDB and RDF benchmarks in February.
The LOD2 repository is a fusion of the OpenLink LOD Cloud Cache (which includes data from URIBurner and PingTheSemanticWeb) and Sindice, both hosted at DERI. The value-add compared to Sindice or the Virtuoso-based LOD Cloud Cache alone is the merger of the timeliness and ping-ping crawling of Sindice with the SPARQL of Virtuoso.
Further down the road, after we migrate the system to the Virtuoso column store, we will also see gains in performance, primarily due to much better working set, as data is many times more compact than with the present row-wise key compression.
Still further, but before next September, we will have dynamic repartitioning; the time of availability is set as this is part of the LOD2 project roadmap. The operational need for this is pushed back somewhat by the compression gains from column-wise storage.
As for benchmarks, I just compiled a draft of suggested extensions to the BSBM (Berlin SPARQL Benchmark). I talked about this with Peter Boncz and Chris Bizer, to the effect that some extensions of BSBM could be done but that the time was a bit short for making a RDF-specific benchmark. We do recall that BSBM is fully feasible with a relational schema and that RDF offers no fundamental edge for the workload.
There was a graph benchmark talk at the TPC workshop at VLDB 2010. There too, the authors were suggesting a social network use case for benchmarking anything from RDF stores to graph libraries. The presentation did not include any specification of test data, so it may be that some cooperation is possible there. The need for such a benchmark is well acknowledged. The final form of this is not yet set but LOD2 will in time publish results from such.
We did informally talk about a process for publishing with our colleagues from Franz and Ontotext at VLDB 2010. The idea is that vendors tune their own systems and do the runs and that the others check on this, preferably all using the same hardware.
Now, the LOD2 benchmarks will also include relational-to-RDF comparisons, for example TPC-H in SQL and SPARQL. The SQL will be Virtuoso, MonetDB, and possibly VectorWise and others, depending on what legal restrictions apply at the time. This will give an RDF-to-SQL comparison of TPC-H at least on Virtuoso, later also on MonetDB, depending on the schedule for a MonetDB SPARQL front-end.
In the immediate term, this of course focuses our efforts on productizing the Virtuoso column store extension and the optimizations that go with it.
LOD2 is however about much more than database benchmarks. Over the longer term, we plan to apply suitable parts of the ground-breaking database research done at CWI to RDF use cases.
This involves anything from adaptive indexing, to reuse and caching of intermediate results, to adaptive execution. This is however more than just mapping column store concepts to RDF. New challenges are posed by running on clusters and dealing with more expressive queries than just SQL, in specific queries with Datalog-like rules and recursion.
LOD2 is principally about integration and alignment, from the schema to the instance level. This involves complex batch processing, close to the data, on large volumes of data. Map-reduce is not the be-all-end-all of this. Of course, a parallel database like Virtuoso, Greenplum, or Vertica can do map-reduce style operations under control of the SQL engine. After all, the SQL engine needs to do map-reduce and a lot more to provide good throughput for parallel, distributed SQL. Something like the Berkeley Orders Of Magnitude (BOOM) distributed Datalog implementation (Overlog, Deadalus, BLOOM) could be a parallel computation framework that would subsume any map-reduce-style functionality under a more elegant declarative framework while still leaving control of execution to the developer for the cases where this is needed.
From our viewpoint, the project's gains include:
Significant narrowing of the RDB to RDF performance gap. RDF will be an option for large scale warehousing, cutting down on time to integration by providing greater schema flexibility.
Ready to use toolbox for data integration, including schema alignment and resolution of coreference.
Data discovery, summarization and visualization
Integrating this into a relatively unified stack of tools is possible, since these all cluster around the task of linking the universe with RDF and linked data. In this respect the integration of results may be stronger than often seen in European large scale integrating projects.
The use cases fit the development profile well:
Wolters Kluwer will develop an application for integrating resources around law, from the actual laws to court cases to media coverage. The content is modeled in a fine grained legal ontology.
Exalead will implement the linked data enterprise, addressing enterprise search and any typical enterprise data integration plus generating added value from open sources.
The Open Knowledge Foundation will create a portal of all government published data for easy access by citizens.
In all these cases, the integration requirements of schema alignment, resolution of identity, information extraction, and efficient storage and retrieval play a significant role. The end user interfaces will be task-specific but developer interfaces around integration tools and query formulation may be quite generic and suited for generic RDF application development.
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Author: Orri Erling
Published: 09/21/2010 17:13 GMT
09/21/2010 16:22 GMT
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