OpenLink Glossary of Terms


  • Description - Offer detailed description.
  • ActiveX Data Objects for Microsoft.NET (ADO.NET) - A Microsoft .NET based application programming interface (API) that enables the development and deployment of database and data source independent (agnostic) applications.
  • Big Data - Data that's disparately located, varied in structure, voluminous, and rapidly changing.
  • Comma Separated Values (CSV) - This file format is widely used as a data interchange mechanism for structured data that represents relational tables (popular usage pattern) or relational property/predicate statement graphs (exemplified by RDF's N-Triples notation).
  • CoReference - When more than one Identifier denotes the same entity.
  • Database Management System - An application that provides storage, indexing, and declarative query access to structured data (entity relationships).
  • Central Processing Unit - Central processing unit (CPU) is the hardware within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system.
  • CPU Cores - A CPU core is comprised of a logical execution unit containing an L1 cache and functional units. Cores are able to independently execute programs or threads.
  • Integrated Circuit - An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit.
  • DBpedia - RDF based Linked Data rendition of Wikipedia's encyclopedic content.
  • DBpedia Live - Live edition of DBpedia
  • Data - Term that refers to entity relationship observation represented in reusable form using a combination of signs, syntax, and statements i.e., a language.
  • Data Dictionary - A document that describes the semantics of entity and relationship types.
  • Dataset - Collection of statements representiting entity relationships (e.g., RDF subject->predicate->object triples) that are associated with a collection identifier. In W3C RDF parlance, this kind of identifier is referred to as a Named Graph IRI, and used for dataset oriented structured data representation via TriG and N-Quads notations.
  • Database - A document comprised of structured data. This isn't the same thing as a database management system (DBMS). Basically, this is what a DBMS application actually manages.
  • Database Connectivity Application Programming Interface - An API that's specifically aimed at providing database product independent connectivity.
  • Database Schema - A document that describes the organization of a database in regards to the semantics of entity and relationship types.
  • Denotes - Relation that associates an identifier with entity. In this kind of relation, the subject is a sign while the object is an entity signified by the sign i.e., the sign's referent. In RDF, this relation is implicit -- making it an integral implementation aspect of any RDF compliant processor.
  • Document - An artifact comprised of content. In the context of computer operating systems, "document" and "file" are terms that referred to the same thing.
  • Entity - Distinctly identifiable thing.
  • Grammar - Rules controlling the arrangement of identifiers [words, phrases, and terms] in a language.
  • Graph - Colloquialism used to refer to one or more statements that represent entity relationships. Overloaded use of this term is common across communities asssociated with Semantic Web, Linked Data, RDF, and Relational Property/Predicate Graph oriented Database Management Systems.
  • Graph Model Database Management System - A kind of database management system (DBMS) that provides storage, indexing, and declarative query access to data (entity relationships) represented as statements (using product specific notations). Typically, this kind of data management application is collequially referred to as "relational predicate or property graphs" database.
  • HTTP - Protocol for performing a variety of operations (e.g., Create, Read, Update, and Delete) against hypertext documents -- over TCP/IP based networks.
  • HTTP URI - An HTTP scheme based Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) endowed with the dual capability of entity denotation (signification, naming, reference) and description lookup over an HTTP protocol based network.
  • HTTP URL - An HTTP scheme based Uniform Resource Locator (URL) used to denote (signify, name, or "refer to") the location (address) of data on an HTTP protocol based network.
  • IRI - An Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI) is a Universal Character Set (Unicode//ISO 10646) string based sign used to denote (signify, name, or "refer to") an entity.
  • Identifier - A sign used to denote (signify, name, or "refer to") an entity.
  • Internet - Publicl Linked Computer Network (Cloud).
  • Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) - A Java programming language based application programming interface (API) that enables the development and deployment of SQL relational database independent (agnostic) applications.
  • JDBC DSN - A string based identifier used to denote (signify, name, or "refer to") a JDBC accessible database item (Table, View, Stored Procedure). Basically, this takes the form of jdbc: scheme URL.
  • JDBC Driver - An implementation of the JDBC Data Access API that provides data connectivity and access services for a specific combination of data source name and actual data source type (e.g., an Oracle, SQL Server, Sybase, Informix, Ingres, MySQL, Progress/OpenEdge, PostgreSQL, DB2, Firebird etc.. relational database management system hosted databases)
  • JDBC Driver Manager - A Java runtime component that associates (binds) a JDBC Data Source Name (DN) with an actual data source specific data access driver (aka. JDBC Driver).
  • JSON-LD - JSON based notation for structured data representation.
  • Linked Open Data (LOD) Cloud - Open & Webby Structured Data Cloud on the Web.
  • Linked Open Data (LOD) Cloud Cache - Live instance of OpenLink Virtuoso that provides Linked Data based follow-your-nose exploration and ad-hoc SPARQL query access to data loaded from Linked Open Data cloud datasets. This service is comprised of 50 Billion+ entity relationships (represented as RDF statements) endowed with human and machine comprehensible entity relation semantics.
  • Linked Open Vocabulary (LOV) Cloud - Entity Types & Relations oriented aspect of the Linked Open Data Cloud.
  • Language - A system of signs [for denotation or naming], syntax [for grammar], and semantics [for entity relation roles & types] that enable encoding and decoding of information gleaned from observation.
  • Linked Data - Web-Like or Webby Structured Data
  • Linked Open Data (LOD) - Open & Webby Structured Data
  • Microdata - HTML based notation for embedding structured data islands within HTML documents.
  • NewSQL - Colloquialism for a variant (or generation) of SQL based RDBMS product that handles scalability challenges using techiques such as: clustering and veritcal partitioning of data. Basically, for all intents an purposes, this is about product specific extensions to SQL aimed at scalability challenges posed by data access, integration, and management at World Wide Web and Internet scales.
  • NoSQL - Colloquialism for a variant (or generation) of RDBMS product that doesn't conflate SQL (Structured Query Language) and Relational Database. Typically, you will find database management systems (DBMS) that support relations represented as relational property/predicate graphs associated with this moniker.
  • Notation - A systematic use of symbols to express the syntax of a language.
  • Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) - A 'C' programming language based application programming interface (API) that enables the development and deployment of SQL relational database independent (agnostic) applications.
  • ODBC Administrator - A user interaction and graphical user interface component enables a user (or compliant application) add, updated, and remove ODBC Data Soruce Names (DSNs) via interactions with the underlying ODBC Driver Manager. It also enables the user (or compliant application) add and remove ODBC Drivers. Metaphorically, this user interface is very similar to a printer selection and management interface that's presented to an end-user (via an application) when print services are required; thus, you can simply substitute "printer" with "database" when trying to understand the functionality delivered by this ODBC component.
  • ODBC DSN - A string based identifier used to denote (signify, name, or "refer to") an ODBC accessible database item (Table, View, Stored Procedure). Basically, this is an X.509 Distinguished Name (DN).
  • ODBC Driver - An implementation of the ODBC Data Access API that provides data connectivity and access services for a specific combination of data source name and actual data source type (e.g., an Oracle, SQL Server, Sybase, Informix, Ingres, MySQL, Progress/OpenEdge, PostgreSQL, DB2, Firebird etc.. relational database management system hosted databases)
  • ODBC Driver Manager - Runtime component that associates (binds) an ODBC Data Source Name (DN) with an actual data source specific data access driver (aka. ODBC Driver).
  • Object Linking & Embedding Data Objects (OLE-DB) - A Microsoft Object Linking & Embedding (OLE) based application programming interface (API) that enables the development and deployment of database and data source independent (agnostic) applications.
  • Web Ontology Language (OWL) - A vocabulary comprised of terms used to describe Entity and associated Relation types in regards to RDF based structured data representation. In relation to RDF Schema, OWL provides terms that address more-fine grained definition of entity relation types e.g., InverseFunctional, Symmetric, InverseOf, EquivalentProperty, EquivalentClass, sameAs etc.
  • Ontology - A subcategory of Data Dictionary and Schema that's conceptual in orientation i.e., focused on the semantics of entity relationships -- represented by a series of assertions (in a variety of notations) that cover the nature of entity and relation types.
  • Open Data - Open Standards based Structured Data.
  • Open Data Connectivity - Term that refers to the kind of data connectivity provided by data access APIs such as: HTTP, SPARQL-Protocol, SPARQL Graph Store Protocol. Note, these APIs aren't SQL relational database management system oriented, they simply provide open access and connectivity to data.
  • Open Database Connectivity - Term that refers to the kind of database connectivity provided by database management system oriented APIs such as: SPARQL-Protocol, ODBC, JDBC, ADO.NET, OLE-DB, and XMLA.
  • OpenLink DBpedia Live - Live edition of DBpedia Live hosted by OpenLink Software
  • Public Open Data - Public Domain Open Standards based Structured Data.
  • SQL Relational Tables to RDF Property (Predicate) Graph Mapping Language - A vocabulary comprised of terms used to describe how entity relations represented by SQL relational tables are mapped to entity relations represented by RDF statements (subject->predicate->object triples) -- for transformation by a compliant processor. Basically, an R2RML processor will produce an RDF model based representation of SQL entity relations by processing the contents of an R2RML document.
  • Relational Database Management System - A kind of application that provides storage, indexing, and declarative query access to data (entity relationships) represented as relational tables or relational property/predicate statement collections (or graphs). Unfortunately, this term typically refers to database management applications that manage data representated as relational tables and support the SQL Query Language.
  • Resource Description Framework (RDF) - RDF is a language (i.e., system of signs, syntax, and semantics) that enables the construction of structured data that can be read and understood by both humans and machines.
  • RDF (Graph) Database Management System - A kind of database management system (DBMS) that provides storage, indexing, and declarative query access to data (entity relationships) represented as RDF statements (triples).
  • RDF Relation - Relationship type (or kind) determined by the entity playing the predicate role. Put differently, an RDF relation is a relationship where entities playing the subjects and objects roles are associated (connected) via a common predicate.
  • RDF Relationship - Association between two or more entities where each has (or plays) a specific role. In RDF, a relationship is represented by a 3-tuple (triplet or triples or triad) based abstract syntax comprised of identifiers (IRIs) that denote entities playing the subject, predicate, and object roles.
  • RDF Schema Language - A vocabulary comprised of terms used to describe Entity and associated Relation types in regards to RDF based structured data representation.
  • RDF Statement - Representation of an entity relationship using a variety of notations (or concrete syntaxes in RDF spec. parlance) in conformance with RDF's abstract subject->predicate->object syntax.
  • RDF/XML - An XML based notation for RDF based structured data representation.
  • RDFa - HTML based notation for embedding RDF based structured data islands within HTML documents.
  • Referent - What an Identifier denotes (names, "refers to", or signifies).
  • Relation - A relationship type determined by the entity that plays the relationship's property/predicate role.
  • Relationship - Association between two or more entities where each has (or plays) a specific role. Subject (start), Predicate (connector), and Object (end) are typical relationship roles.
  • Resource - Something that provides utility (usefulness).
  • Serendipitious Discovery Quotient (SDQ) - A metric that indicates a document's discoverability as a function of the discernible and comprehensible relation semantics represented in its content .
  • SPARQL - Recursive acronym that covers: a Declarative Structured Query language for RDF model based structured data, Query Results Serialization Formats, HTTP based Query Service Protocol, and an HTTP based Database (or Store) oriented protocol for Create, Update, and Delete (CRUD) operations.
  • SPARQL Endpoint - SPARQL Query Web Services access point.
  • Federated SPARQL - Federated variant of the SPARQL query language that enables federated execution of queries across RDF data sources associated with SPARQL endpoint (HTTP based Web Service endpoint). Thus, given an number of known SPARQL endpoints end-users and user agents are able to dispatch SPARQL queries comprised of query patterns scoped to each endpoint.
  • SPARQL Graph Store Protocol - HTTP based Protocol for perfroming Create, Update, and Delete operations scoped to RDF documents (i.e., containers of RDF triple based statements) associated with a database management system or store that supports indexing and storage of RDF based structured data.
  • SPARQL 1.1 Query Protocol - HTTP based Protocol for executing Queries against SPARQL compliant data sources.
  • SPARQL Query Language - Like SQL (a declarative query language for entity relations representated as Tables), this query language provides a mechanism for creating, querying, and updating entity relations represented as RDF triple based statements (colloquially referred to as: property or predicate graphs). As a moderen query language, SPARQL enables broad exploitation of relational data theory while also incorprating concepts such as inference and reasoning -- historically associated deductive database technology.
  • SPARQL Query Results Format - Query Results (or solution) representation and transmission (serialization) formats that include: CSV, TSV, XML, and JSON for tabular representation of SELECT and ASK query results; and Turtle, N-Triples, JSON-LD, HTML+Microdata, HTML+RDFa, RDF/XML, CSV, TSV and others, for handling DESCRIBE and CONSTRUCT query results -- which are basically RDF statements describing entity relations that match a given query pattern.
  • SPARQL Service Description - A vocabulary comprised of terms used to describe a SPARQL Query Service endpoint.
  • SPARQL & SQL Hybrid Query Language - Declarative query language for performing Create, Read, Update, and Delete operations on data represented as relational tables and/or RDF statement -- also known colloquially referred to as relational property (predicate) graphs. This query language enables incorporation of SPARQL queries into SQL queries via the SQL WHERE CLAUSE.
  • Structured Query Language (SQL) - Declarative query language for performing Create, Read, Update, and Delete operations on data represented as relational tables. This standard is widely adopted across SQL relational database management (RDBMS) products; collectively, these RDBMS products currently underly a majority applications and sevices that drive the global economy.
  • SQL Relational Database Management System - A kind of database management system (DBMS) that provides storage, indexing, and declarative query access to data (entity relationships) represented as records in a table. This kinds of also supports the Stuctured Query Language (SQL) as the prime mechanism for declarative data access, manipulation, and definition.
  • SQL Relation - Relationship type (or kind) denoted by a Table name that's implicityly associated with its records via an "IsA" or "instanceOf" relation.
  • SQL Relationship - Association between two or more entities where each has (or plays) a specific role. In SQL, a relationship is represented by sets of n-tuple records in a table that's comprised of attributes denoted by column names. In this kind of relationship, each record represents collection of entity relationships that describe an entity. Basically, each entity is denoted by a primary key derived from the value of a designated table column; and outside the table of original designation, a primary key is referred to as a foreign key when used by records in other table as a means of referring to the entity it denotes.
  • Schema - Framework for organized patterns of thought about entities and semantics of entity and relationship types.
  • Schema.org - A shared vocabulary collaboration effort aimed at bootstrapping structured data construction and publication to the World Wide Web. Notably, this collaboration is the combined effort of organizations such as: W3C, Google, Microsoft, Yandex, Yahoo!, and the vast community of Semantic Web, Linked Open Data, and Open Data enthusiasts.
  • Semantic Web - Semantically Enhanced Linked Data Network (Cloud).
  • Semantics - The meaning of words, phrases, and terms in a particular usage context (scenario or situation). For instance, in sentences and statements, it refers to meaning derived from the combined effects of entity relationships and relationship participant roles (e.g., subject, predicate, and object).
  • Smart Data - Open & Webby Structured Data + Machine Readable Relations Semantics.
  • Structured Data - Data represented in machine & human readable (or comprehensible) form.
  • Syntax - How the grammar of a language is represented.
  • Turtle - An RDF notation for structured data representation.
  • URI - A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string based sign used to denote (signify, name, or "refer to") an entity.
  • URIBurner - Live instance of OpenLink Virtuoso that provides Linked Data based follow-your-nose exploration and ad-hoc SPARQL query access to data loaded and transformed "on the fly" from HTTP accesible data sources. This service is a live demonstration of Virtuoso's in-built middleware for generating 5-Star RDF based Linked Data from a wide variety of data sources.
  • URL - A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is string based sign used to denote (signify, name, or "refer to") the location (address) of data on a network.
  • WebID - An HTTP scheme URI used to denote (signify, name, or "refer to") a Person, Organization, Software, Machine, or anyhting else capable of mechanized operation.
  • World Wide Web - Web of Linked Documents.
  • hasPart - Relation that indicates an association whereby one entity (thing) is part of another. A hasPartOf relation is the inverse of this kind of relation.
  • Hashtag - Shorthand for denoting (referring to or naming) topics using HTTP URIs that's broadly used across all major social networking and social media platforms. Basically, this is how the end-users contribute to a Semantic Web or Web of Data without digging into the specifics of Linked Data principles and/or RDF specifications.
  • partOf - Relation that indicates an association whereby one entity (thing) is part of another. A hasPartOf relation is the inverse of this kind of relation.
  • DBpedia Dataset - Datasets derived from Wikipedia content (using RDF mapper based extract, transform, and load [ETL] processing pipelines) and packaged for download and reuse as part of the Linked Open Data (LOD) Cloud and broader Semantic Web.
  • DBpedia Linked Data - 5-Star Linked Open Data derived from Wikipedia content that's published to the Linked Open Data Cloud.
  • DBpedia RDF Mapper - Software that loads, extracts and transforms data from Wikipedia content into RDF based structured data that published in 5-Star Linked Data form as part of the DBpedia Linked Data Space.
  • DBpedia SPARQL Endpoint - DBpedia SPARQL Query Web Services access point.
  • DSN - A string based identifier used to denote (signify, name, or "refer to") a data source associated with an ODBC or JDBC accessible database.
  • JDBC DSN Connection String - A composite string based identifier used to denote (signify, name, or "refer to") a the specific location of JDBC accessible data item in a database. Basically, this is a composite of items that make up a jdbc: scheme URL that includes: Host, Password, Username, Database Item/Object Name (Table, View, Stored Procedure).
  • N-Triples - An RDF notation for structured data representation.
  • ODBC DSN Connection String - A composite string based identifier used to denote (signify, name, or "refer to") a the specific location of ODBC accessible data item in a database. Basically, this is a composite of items that make up an X.509 Distinguished Name (DN) that includes: Host, Password, Username, Database Item/Object Name (Table, View, Stored Procedure).
  • RDF Mapper - Software that loads, extracts, and transforms data from a variety of sources into RDF based structured data.
  • SQL Relation Header - Part of a SQL Relation (i.e. Table) represented by a collection of rows (records), each denoted by a record (typically a Primary Key), that are associated with a class (or category) denoted by the Table name via an implicit "IsA" or "instanceOf" relationship property (playing predicate role). As a consequence, every record identifier in a given Table denotes an instance of the class (or category) denoted by the Table name.
  • SQL Relation Header - Part of a SQL Relation (i.e. Table) represented by a collection of columns, where every column-name denotes a relationship property (playing predicate role) that has the Table name as its domain (via an implicit "hasDomain" relation) and the column-value datatypes as its range (via an implicit "hasRange" relation) of accepted values.
  • WebDAV - Protocol for performing a variety of operations (e.g., Create, Read, Update, and Delete) against hypertext documents -- over TCP/IP based networks.
  • WebID-TLS - WebID Authentication Protocol.
  • OpenLink Data Related Terms Concept Scheme - Glossary covering the definition of a variety of terms associated with realm of Data, Networks, and Cloud abstractions.

Other relevant terminology